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讓干擾行為無所遁形 讓航空頻率更加純凈
時間:2021-10-21 11:47:17 點擊次數:505

每一架飛(fei)(fei)機(ji)(ji)從起飛(fei)(fei)到(dao)降落(luo)都(dou)離不開(kai)地面(mian)(mian)航(hang)(hang)空(kong)(kong)管理(li)人員的(de)控(kong)制(zhi)和指揮,都(dou)需要飛(fei)(fei)行(xing)(xing)機(ji)(ji)組與(yu)管制(zhi)人員的(de)密切配(pei)合,都(dou)需要無(wu)(wu)(wu)線電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)通信(xin)(xin)、導航(hang)(hang)、監視設備(bei)的(de)安全保障。飛(fei)(fei)行(xing)(xing)中的(de)飛(fei)(fei)機(ji)(ji)與(yu)地面(mian)(mian)之間、飛(fei)(fei)機(ji)(ji)與(yu)飛(fei)(fei)機(ji)(ji)之間的(de)通信(xin)(xin)主(zhu)要依靠(kao)甚高(gao)頻(pin)通信(xin)(xin)系統(tong)(tong),通信(xin)(xin)系統(tong)(tong)是保障飛(fei)(fei)機(ji)(ji)飛(fei)(fei)行(xing)(xing)安全的(de)重(zhong)要系統(tong)(tong)。隨著我國無(wu)(wu)(wu)線電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)事業的(de)快速(su)發展,無(wu)(wu)(wu)線電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)新技(ji)術廣泛應(ying)用,無(wu)(wu)(wu)線電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)臺(站)數量(liang)急劇(ju)增加,航(hang)(hang)空(kong)(kong)無(wu)(wu)(wu)線電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)面(mian)(mian)臨(lin)更(geng)(geng)多樣、更(geng)(geng)復雜的(de)干(gan)擾,直接影響到(dao)國家安全、社會穩定和人民(min)生命財產安全。因此,保護航(hang)(hang)空(kong)(kong)無(wu)(wu)(wu)線電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)頻(pin)率、維護航(hang)(hang)空(kong)(kong)無(wu)(wu)(wu)線電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)秩序的(de)重(zhong)要性日漸凸(tu)顯(xian)。


對(dui)(dui)于(yu)航空無(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)線(xian)電(dian)(dian)頻(pin)率保護(hu),相關法(fa)律法(fa)規(gui)有(you)具體(ti)而明確(que)(que)的(de)(de)(de)(de)規(gui)定。比如(ru)《中華人(ren)民共和(he)(he)(he)國(guo)(guo)無(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)線(xian)電(dian)(dian)管(guan)(guan)理條(tiao)例》規(gui)定,對(dui)(dui)建(jian)設(she)(she)機場等(deng)需要電(dian)(dian)磁(ci)(ci)環(huan)境特殊保護(hu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)項目,項目建(jian)設(she)(she)單位應(ying)當在確(que)(que)定工作選(xuan)址前對(dui)(dui)其進行電(dian)(dian)磁(ci)(ci)兼(jian)容分析和(he)(he)(he)論證;在已建(jian)機場周邊區域不得(de)新建(jian)阻(zu)斷無(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)線(xian)電(dian)(dian)信號傳輸的(de)(de)(de)(de)高大建(jian)筑、設(she)(she)施(shi)(shi),不得(de)設(she)(she)置、使(shi)用(yong)干擾其正常使(shi)用(yong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)設(she)(she)施(shi)(shi)、設(she)(she)備,無(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)線(xian)電(dian)(dian)管(guan)(guan)理機構(gou)應(ying)當會同(tong)城鄉規(gui)劃(hua)和(he)(he)(he)其他有(you)關部門制定具體(ti)的(de)(de)(de)(de)保護(hu)措施(shi)(shi)并向(xiang)社(she)會公布;同(tong)時對(dui)(dui)航空器等(deng)專(zhuan)用(yong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)無(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)線(xian)電(dian)(dian)導航、遇(yu)險救(jiu)助與安全(quan)通信等(deng)涉及人(ren)身安全(quan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)無(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)線(xian)電(dian)(dian)頻(pin)率,如(ru)國(guo)(guo)際統(tong)一的(de)(de)(de)(de)二次雷達頻(pin)率1030MHz(TX)/1090MHz(RX)、全(quan)球衛星(xing)搜救(jiu)系統(tong)使(shi)用(yong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)遇(yu)險報警頻(pin)率406-406.1MHz等(deng),也提(ti)出了(le)特別(bie)保護(hu)要求,任何無(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)線(xian)電(dian)(dian)發射設(she)(she)備和(he)(he)(he)輻射無(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)線(xian)電(dian)(dian)波的(de)(de)(de)(de)非(fei)無(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)線(xian)電(dian)(dian)設(she)(she)備不得(de)對(dui)(dui)其產生有(you)害干擾。此外(wai),《中華人(ren)民共和(he)(he)(he)國(guo)(guo)刑法(fa)》《中華人(ren)民共和(he)(he)(he)國(guo)(guo)治安管(guan)(guan)理處罰法(fa)》等(deng)法(fa)律法(fa)規(gui)對(dui)(dui)非(fei)法(fa)設(she)(she)臺和(he)(he)(he)故(gu)意干擾無(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)線(xian)電(dian)(dian)業務的(de)(de)(de)(de)行為都作出了(le)明確(que)(que)的(de)(de)(de)(de)處罰規(gui)定。


捍(han)衛航空無線(xian)電(dian)秩序,法(fa)律無疑是最有(you)力的武(wu)器(qi)。各地機場和(he)空管部門在捍(han)衛航空無線(xian)電(dian)秩序、排除相關(guan)干(gan)擾的過程中,運用法(fa)治思維,采取(qu)法(fa)律手段,可收到事半功(gong)倍(bei)的效果。

一(yi)方面,民航(hang)工作(zuo)(zuo)人員要熟悉相關(guan)法(fa)律法(fa)規,善于運用(yong)法(fa)律手(shou)段捍衛“空中凈(jing)土”。尤其(qi)是在遭遇“黑廣播(bo)”干(gan)(gan)擾(rao)時(shi)(shi),機(ji)組或地(di)面操作(zuo)(zuo)使用(yong)人員應當按照要求(qiu),詳(xiang)細記錄干(gan)(gan)擾(rao)情況,包括干(gan)(gan)擾(rao)性(xing)質、干(gan)(gan)擾(rao)臺(tai)頻率、呼號(hao)、出現(xian)時(shi)(shi)間和信號(hao)強度;機(ji)場和空管部(bu)門應當依據相關(guan)規定,及(ji)(ji)時(shi)(shi)向相關(guan)部(bu)門進(jin)行通報,并協同各地(di)無線(xian)電管理委(wei)員會、工業和信息化及(ji)(ji)公安部(bu)門開展整治行動(dong),保持(chi)嚴(yan)打“黑廣播(bo)”的(de)高壓態勢,做(zuo)到“發(fa)現(xian)一(yi)個查處一(yi)個”,及(ji)(ji)時(shi)(shi)消(xiao)除相關(guan)隱患。

另一方面,各(ge)地機場和空(kong)管(guan)部門應該加(jia)大(da)安(an)(an)全使用(yong)無(wu)(wu)(wu)線(xian)(xian)(xian)電的普法(fa)力度,加(jia)深社會公眾對(dui)無(wu)(wu)(wu)線(xian)(xian)(xian)電管(guan)理(li)知識(shi)的了(le)解(jie),增強(qiang)其自覺遵守(shou)無(wu)(wu)(wu)線(xian)(xian)(xian)電法(fa)律法(fa)規的意(yi)識(shi)。每年9月(yue)是(shi)全國無(wu)(wu)(wu)線(xian)(xian)(xian)電管(guan)理(li)宣(xuan)傳月(yue)。在今年的宣(xuan)傳月(yue),陜西漢中(zhong)(zhong)機場、內蒙古烏海機場等民(min)(min)航(hang)(hang)單位面向旅客和附(fu)近居民(min)(min)開展(zhan)了(le)豐富多(duo)樣的活動,包括設置無(wu)(wu)(wu)線(xian)(xian)(xian)電宣(xuan)傳欄(lan),發(fa)(fa)放無(wu)(wu)(wu)線(xian)(xian)(xian)電宣(xuan)傳手冊,詳細(xi)講解(jie)機場電磁(ci)環境保護相(xiang)關法(fa)律法(fa)規、《中(zhong)(zhong)華人(ren)民(min)(min)共和國無(wu)(wu)(wu)線(xian)(xian)(xian)電管(guan)理(li)條例》、無(wu)(wu)(wu)線(xian)(xian)(xian)電的種類、無(wu)(wu)(wu)線(xian)(xian)(xian)電對(dui)航(hang)(hang)空(kong)飛行的重要性、“偽基站”“黑廣播”等無(wu)(wu)(wu)線(xian)(xian)(xian)電干(gan)擾對(dui)航(hang)(hang)空(kong)飛行安(an)(an)全的影響,以及(ji)如何正確辦理(li)、合法(fa)使用(yong)無(wu)(wu)(wu)線(xian)(xian)(xian)電等相(xiang)關知識(shi)。這些舉措有助于(yu)增強(qiang)民(min)(min)眾自覺抵制違法(fa)無(wu)(wu)(wu)線(xian)(xian)(xian)電傳播的意(yi)識(shi),減少無(wu)(wu)(wu)線(xian)(xian)(xian)電干(gan)擾航(hang)(hang)空(kong)器事件(jian)的發(fa)(fa)生(sheng)。

運用法治思維,采取法律(lv)手段(duan),讓(rang)看不(bu)見、摸不(bu)著的航空(kong)無(wu)線電走出人(ren)們的認(ren)知盲區,才(cai)能讓(rang)干擾行(xing)為無(wu)所遁形,讓(rang)航空(kong)頻率(lv)更加(jia)純凈。


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